生存权

RIGHT TO LIVE

生存权

作者:M.P. PARAMESWARAN 翻译:诸众之貌团队
****
Every child brought into this world has a right to live and to have a full life.
This right encompasses right to clean air, pure water, and healthy food. Children by themselves cannot enforce these rights.
These rights are to be ensured, not by the 'right of the mighty', but by collective agreement.
It is this substitution of collective to the individual that makes human different from animals.
However in case of food, the collective right to food have shrunk to right in the family. Air and water are still considered as responsibilities of the society, the collectivity.
Attempts have been made to bring collective responsibility for food for all. Soup kitchens the food coupons, the EGS, the PDS etc. are attempts in this direction.
All these are resented by capitalism – both liberal and neo-liberal
Social responsibility is antithetical to the 'dictatorship of the market'
来到这个世上的每一个孩子,都有生存和过上充实生活的权利。
这一权利应当包括:呼吸新鲜的空气、饮用干净的水和食用健康的食物。儿童难以依靠自己的力量申索这些权利。
这些权利不能靠有权有势的人提供,应该靠所有人的集体努力。
集体协作正是人区别于动物的地方。
然而,在食物方面,这种集体协作的范围已经缩窄到单个家庭。但空气和水仍被视为社会集体责任的体现。
为了实现食物上的集体协作,人们已经在这个方向上做出了很多尝试,比如公益厨房、食品券、就业方案、公共配给系统等等。
这些新尝试引发了自由资本主义和新自由资本主义的不满。
社会责任成了“独裁统治”的绊脚石。
Neoliberalism is on the track to commoditise, even the existing limited level of social responsibility – on food, water and even air, as well as a host of other goods and services.
The neoliberal dictatorship of the market has not been able to carry out its dehumanization agenda fully. There is still some element of social concern towards children, not only to own children but to all. This could be the starting point for a rehumanization project.
Can we dream of a Bharat where no child goes hungry, no child is mal nutritioned? Can we think of a district, a village, which can proudly say: in our panchayat/district there is no hungry child. All children belong to every one. Their rights, all rights, are guaranteed by all of us, we ensure their food (of course drinking water, clean air and environment too), we also ensure their education and their health care.I think that it is possible and exciting.
Where we start? Who will take initiative? It has to be multi fronted. Pressure on government, raising social consciousness, arousing a sense of justice, playing to local pride etc.
新自由主义在商品化的道路上巧取豪夺,他们甚至连仅存的那点社会责任也不放过——食物、水、甚至是空气,以及其他各种产品和服务,全部都要商品化。
所幸,新自由主义的独裁统治并未使市场完全失去人性。儿童的生存问题仍然得到了一些社会关注,人们并不是只关心自己的孩子。这是一个好的开始,也许它能帮我们找回那个有人情味的社会。
我们有没有可能创造一个儿童不用挨饿,不会营养不良的印度?我们有没有可能让一个地区,一个村庄可以自豪地说:我们村/区没有孩子挨饿!我们关心每个孩子。我们共同保障他们的权利,保障他们所有的权利。我们不但保障他们的温饱(包括饮用水,干净的空气和环境),我们还要保障他们的教育和医疗。我认为这是可能的,更是令人鼓舞的。
那么我们从哪开始?谁带领我们?我认为应该从多个方面入手。在向政府施压的同时,提高社会意识,唤起群众正义感,发挥地区自豪感,多管齐下,实现变革。
Some calculations have been made to estimate the resources required for this. A percentage of children their parents in fact, may not like the society to take care of them. The family is rich enough and proud. This may come to 20-30%. In a community of about 5000 population, the number of children in the age group 0-14 requiring societal help may come to about 1000. The annual cost to provide about 1500 calories of nutrition and palatable food for a child will be about Rs.3000. If we assume that the annual per capita income of the society is Rs.18, 000 then the total amount to make it a village of hunger free children is Rs.3 million, out of a total income on 90 million i.e. about 3.5% of G.N.P.
This calculation was made only to assure ourselves that lack of societal resources need not be a constraint.
Children are to be given cooked food, to ensure that they are fed. They can be given this partly in schools, about 180 days – breakfast, lunch and evening snacks and in neighborhood 'kiddies kitchen' run by neighborhood women's groups – dinner on all days, all food for 180 days. This is organsable. The Kiddies kitchen will be a great socializing space, to be consciously used for caste and communal integration.
一些研究已经对此项变革所需的资源进行了估算。实际上,一部分父母可能不喜欢社会帮扶他们的孩子。这种家庭一般是很富有、很高傲的,在数量上这类家庭大概占到了20-30%。在一个约5000人口的社区,年龄在0-14岁且需要社会帮扶的儿童的数量可能达到1000人左右。为一个儿童提供每年约1500卡路里的营养和可口食物的成本约在3000卢比。如果我们假设印度社会的人均年收入为 18,000卢比,而要使一个村的所有儿童不挨饿需要花费300万卢比,则该笔花费约占9000万GNP(国民生产总值)的3.5%。
这一计算结果只是为了告诉我们自己:社会资源的缺乏不必成为一种约束。
我们要给孩子们吃煮熟的食物,保障他们的温饱。在一年中,约180天的食物—— 早餐、午餐和晚餐点心——可以由学校负担,另外 180天的食物可以交给社区妇女组织运营的“儿童厨房”来负责提供儿童的三餐和其他所有食物。这种资源配置是可行的。儿童厨房将成为一个巨大的社交空间,这里将实现不同阶级、不同群体的整合。
There are several corollaries to this. Everybody agrees that land reforms is a major pre-requisite in the eradication of poverty. Today this is a far away political agenda, farther than what it was two-three decades ago. Still one can think of partial land reforms – and assign land to schools. Agriculture and animal husbandry can be used as excellent out of room pedagogic situations, in which biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, economics etc. can be learned by children. So a kiddies farm- e- kitchen- school – movement can be thought of. Here the children work, not for a wage, but to learn science and to produce a small part of their own food. The parents donate one day’s labor every month in favor of their children.
The basic pre-requisite of all these – whether a village level movement or a national movement, is the collective will of the community. This has to be created. There was none for TLC or MLC. The almost rash experiment in Eranakulam paid to dividend. It hypnotized. It broke the hard shell of cynicism.
Together with at other activities I propose that we should do some potentially explosive experiments – to create in a number of villages/panchayats a 'hunger free' children's world.
这一变革将会产生几项必然结果。大家都明白土地改革是消除贫困的重要先决条件之一。虽然当下土地改革的实现要比二三十年前更 遥不可及,但实现部分的土地改革仍是可能的——即分配一些土地给学校。农业和畜牧业可以很好地应用于室外教学活动中,孩子们可以通过农耕和畜牧实践学习生物、化学、物理、生态学、经济学等多方面的知识。儿童农场、一站式学校厨房、移动教学皆有可能。孩子们在这里工作,目的不是为了赚钱,而是为了学习科学知识,同时也为自己烹制点食物。父母每个月都免费来这劳动一天,帮助他们的孩子。
所有这些变革的先决条件——无论是发起一场村级运动还是国民运动,都仰赖社群的集体意志。而我们需要为此迈出第一步。TLC(印度减灾事项训练和学习组织)或MLC(印度移动教学中心)并不能从中得到什么。这个在埃尔讷古勒姆匆忙展开的实验得到了回报。它施展了自己的魅力,打破了愤世嫉俗的坚硬外壳。
所以我提议,与其他活动一起配合,做一些前所未有的尝试——让印度更多的村庄 / 地区的儿童体验没有饥饿的世界。
These are hopeless times. It is rational to go under the blanket and pretend sleep. Let us be emotional- let us be eccentric: Let us proclaim: We Will Save Our Children from the Demon of Hunger, the Hkwr of Hkwd Created by Humans.
就因为我们生存在这个冷漠的年代,我们就可以理直气壮地躲在毯子底下装睡,装作一无所知吗?振作起来吧,让我们活出不同,让我们向世界宣告:我们将从魔鬼手中拯救这些饥饿的孩子,人定胜天!
-13.06.04-
Copy link