BGVS 的起源、使命和工作 CABE会议–1992年8月8日

作者:M.P. PARAMESWARAN 翻译:诸众之貌团队
Today India is witnessing a movement, unprecedented in its history both in character and in magnitude. What during forty years of independence could not be achieved is now being achieved. Today we can hope that illiteracy can be eradicated from this country. The problem is not small. But the effort too is not small. Nearly four million volunteers, without being paid a single pie, are now helping to make nearly 40 million illiterates literate and even beyond. In a country, where increasingly everything is being measured in terms rupees and paisa, the emergence of patriotism and humanism as can be witnessed from the tireless efforts of these volunteers is a silver line, a ray of hope. Interestingly enough, science popularization groups, generally known as people’s science movements, have played a cardinal role in this. They knew that the matrix of science can be woven only on a fabric of literacy.
The Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishat, initiated this chain reaction with the Total Literacy Campaign in Ernakulam district and subsequently in the entire state of Kerala. The Pondicherry Science Forum, the Tamil Nadu Science Forum, the Andhra Pradesh Jana Vignana Vedika, the Madhya Pradesh Vigyan Sabha.... All these organizations followed suit.
KSSP(卡拉拉邦民众科学运动)拉动了这一连锁反应。他们首先在埃尔讷古勒姆 ( 印度喀拉拉邦南部城市 ) 启动了“完全识字运动(Total Literacy Campaign)”项目,而后将项目推广到整个喀拉拉邦。本地治里科学论坛(Pondicherry Science Forum)、 泰米尔纳德科学论坛(Tamil Nadu Science Forum)、 安德拉邦城乡居民社会经济援助计划(Andhra Pradesh Jana Vignana Vedika)、中央邦科学会议(Madhya Pradesh Vigyan Sabha)......所有的这些组织紧随其后。
They provided the initial core of activists for the BGVS, which has since grown several times.Today literacy has become a people’s movement which is characterized by:
• A massive and total area approach • Involvement of the entire community in some form or other • Predominantly voluntary nature • Clear objectives and sense of excitement • Close cooperation of bureaucracy with voluntary workers • Very high commitment • Changes in the social out look of participants • Shift from cynicism to optimism • And shared joy
• 大范围、大区域覆盖 • 社区全员整体参与到各种形式的活动中 • 志愿服务 • 目标清晰,情绪高涨 • 官员和志愿工作者紧密合作 • 高度投入 • 参与者社会观念发生改变 • 从愤世嫉俗到积极乐观 • 分享乐趣
And this optimism is contagious. BGVS, it can be said, is mainly responsible for this new turn of events. However, some members of this body and many outside have indirectly expressed serious reservations about BGVS. Many feel that BGVS is only one voluntary organization, just like any other and that NLMA is unduly favoring it. Some others feel that BGVS is a political organization, looking at its spread and activists.
这种乐观主义是极富感染力的。BGVS可以说是这一社会新面貌的主要成就者。不过,也有一些 BGVS 成员和许多非本组织成员间接地表达了严重的保留意见。许多人觉得,BGVS只是一个志愿者组织,和其他组织没什么不同,而且NLMA太过于青睐它。还有人看到 BGVS 影响广泛,还有着众多政府官员,认为它是一个政府机关。
Firstly BGVS is not just “a voluntary organization.” It is an informal arm of the NLMA. It was created with the mandate.
• To interlink all the literacy efforts in the country. • To instill in field activists enthusiasm and excitement and • To reach to every corner of India a call to stamp out illiteracy from India. With the success of the Bharat Gyan Vigyan Jatha and the emergence of Total Literacy Campaigns in Kerala and elsewhere this mandate was enlarged to assist in planning and conduct of all aspects of the total literacy campaign – environment building, training and monitoring – in such a way as to ensure that the spirit of a people’s movement is preserved and strengthened and also to identify, orient and network committed individuals and organizations so as to build a people’s network to provide grass roots support to total literacy campaigns. Total literacy campaigns are successful because of the fruitful union of the governmental machinery on the one side and committed people’s network on the other side. The BGVS helps to build up the people’s network.
首先,BGVS 并不仅仅是一个 “志愿者组织”。它是 NLMA 的非正式组织,它的成立是有着明确使命的 :
• 将全国的扫盲运动联合起来。 • 为全国的活动家加油鼓劲。 • 在全印度范围内号召人民扫除文盲现象。
在 BGVJ 取得成功和“全民识字大动员”出现的其他各地区识字运动蓬勃发展的背景下,BGVS的任务进一步升级,已经扩展到帮助策划 和执行完全扫盲运动的各个方面——包括环境建设、培训、监督等——并以这种方式来确保人民运动的精神得到贯彻和加强,甄别、引领并联合有志人士和组织,建立全民网络,向全民扫盲运动提供底层支持。 全民扫盲运动是成功的,这一方面是因为政府机关卓有成效的团结合作,另一方面是由于全力投入的民众网络。正是BGVS促进了这种全民网络的形成。
Secondly, many Zilla Saksharatha Samithies have registered themselves as district BGVS, because of the goodwill the name enjoys – but they are not the branches of the national BGVS. In most cases the district Collector is the chairperson of this Samithi. The name of BGVS and the association with activists possessed with the zeal to eradicate illiteracy, imparts to it a real missionary character.
第二,许多地区性组织自称( 或者注册为) 地区 BGVS,因为BGVS 享有盛名——但他们并非全国性BGVS的分支机构。很多情况下,地区号召人就是此类机构的负责人。BGVS的盛名,以及和致力于扫清文盲的那些活动人士之间的合作,成就了BGVS真正富有使命感的 志士形象。
Thirdly, BGVS is not a political outfit. Its ranks come from various convictions. But this does not pose a problem so long as they have the conviction that we have to and that we will eradicate illiteracy from the soil of India. Only those who have been exploiting the illiteracy of the people, only those to whom illiteracy provided employment and a permanent source of income, only they will feel threatened by the spread of literacy. Any attempt to politicize literacy work, any attempt to reap electoral-political dividends from literacy work will kill the spirit of a people’s movement for literacy.
True, spread of literacy will have its impact on the society – but that is what we welcome. The poor and the down trodden should be able to improve their plight, should be able to live as human beings. In a situation when the society is rent with caste and communal tensions, when its economy is stressed to the limits, the positive and optimistic environment created by the sheer magnitude of the cooperative endeavors, offers us a ray of hope. Reports from districts, traditionally notorious for caste conflicts indicate substantial relaxation in tension, mainly because of the intensity of cooperation demanded by literacy work and the joy they derive out of such work. Any act which will hamper the growth of this movement will be an unpatriotic act.
May I entreat the members of this board, to visit villages in Madhepura or Madhubani in Bihar, Ratlam or Bilaspur in Madhya Pradesh, Pasumpon or Pdukkottai in Tamilnadu or in any other district where literacy campaign is going on and experience for themselves, the changing face of the rural India. I request every one of you to become active partners in this crusade against illiteracy, to see that we enter the twenty first century as a fully literate nation.
我真诚地恳求各位,到我们正在进行扫盲运动的那些地方,到比哈尔邦的马德普拉或马杜巴尼去看一看,到中央邦的勒德兰或布拉斯布尔去看一看,到泰米尔纳德邦的帕苏米庞或皮杜科泰去看 一看,去亲身感受一下印度农村的崭新面貌。我请求各位在我们国家的这一场伟大的扫盲运动中成为积极的一员,一同见证我们以没有文盲的国家面貌进入二十一世纪。
1992 年——超越
The above paper was presented 14 years ago, when BGVS was only three years old. Since then its spread, both geographic and activity areas, has increased several fold. The total number of people who underwent literacy programme rose to about 120 million, the number of volunteers to 12 million. Literacy Campaign covered all districts in India. The BGVS played important roles in more than half of them. Today we have registered state BGVS organizations in all most all states, committees in nearly 250 districts, presence in tens of thousands of panchayats.
上面的报告是在 14 年前做的,那时 BGVS 只有3岁。从那时起,BGVS在地理上和活动区域上都更加广泛和深入,至今已经增长了好几倍。如今,我们有大约1.2亿人在参与扫盲运动,其中有一千二百万志愿者。扫盲运动已经覆盖了印度全境。BGVS在全国一半的扫 盲阵地中扮演着重要角色。今天,我们在几乎所有的州注册了BGVS州级机构, 在大约250个地区组建了委员会,在数十万个乡村中组织着活动。
As years went by, those officers in the NLM like Anil Bordia, Laxmidhar Mishra, Anitha Kaul, Anil Sinha who had emotional rapport with the leaders of BGVS like M.P. Parameswaran, K.K. Krishnakumar, Vinod Raina etc. were either retired or transferred. The succeeding secretaries for educations and Director Generals of NLM, though still friendly with BGVS, could not own it as theirs. BGVS was become for them, just another NGO. However, in the meanwhile emotional rapport was building up between Rural Development Department and National Drinking Water Mission on the one side and BGVS on the other side. At the behest of officers like P.K. Sivanandan and B.N. Yuganthar BGVS took up a variety of activities related to watershed development and drinking water. Their tenure too, was not long lived, as could be expected. One can say that from 1995 onwards BGVS -NLM partnership began weakening and in 2000 with the advent of BJP government it became a total rupture.
这些年来,NLM官员如安尼尔·鲍迪亚、拉米德哈尔·米什拉、阿尼塔·考尔、安尼尔· 辛哈等人与 BGVS 历届领导人,比如 M.P. 帕拉梅瓦朗、K.K. 克里希那库马尔、维诺德·雷纳等均保持着良好而亲密的关系。随后的教育部长和 NLM 总干事虽然依旧对 BGVS 十分友善,但始终不能将 BGVS 纳为己有,BGVS 对他们而言只是另一个NGO。但与此同时,BGVS还与乡村发展 部(Rural Development Department) 和国家饮用水计划(National Drinking Water Mission)都建立了亲密的情感联系。受 P.K.斯瓦南当和 B.N.于甘塔尔等官 员的邀请,BGVS启动了一系列与水资源和饮用水有关的公益活动。他们的任职时间并不长——这一点可以预见。可以说,自1995年以 来,BGVS-NLM 之间的伙伴关系已经弱化,2000 年,BJP(印度人民党)政府的上台,让它彻底破裂。
The only political leader who knows BGVS well and maintained warm friendship with it for the past 15 years is Shri Arjun Singh. However rapport between NLM officials and the BGVS could not be re-established yet. The BGVS has already expanded the scope of its activities, from Literacy to Continuing Education, Basic Education, Health, Watershed based development, Local Area Planning, Self Help Groups of Women etc. etc. And it is receiving financial support from Sri Dorabji Tata Trust and a few others. Rapports get built when people start ‘dreaming’ (conspiring!) together.
过去15年中,唯一一位非常了解 BGVS,并与BGVS始终保持亲近的关系的政治领导人,是阿尔琼·辛格先生。但直到目前为止,NLM 官员和 BGVS之间的亲密关系再也未能重现。BGVS已经扩展了它的活动范围,从扫盲到继续教育、基础教育、医药卫生、水资源开发、地方规划、妇女自助团体等等,不一而足。现在,BGVS 也在接受着来自道拉布吉基金会的资助。当人们开始共同梦想(共谋大业!)时,亲密关系就建立起来了。