几个问题

A FEW QUESTIONS

几个问题

作者:M.P. PARAMESWARAN 翻译:诸众之貌团队
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1.Why did all the socialist-working class stats in the world collapse? (Forged for the time being China, Cuba, Vietnam, North Korea etc.). Are there any basic common features /causes for this?
2.Why have all “workers states” (and most of their parties too) become less or more corrupt? (Or is it only an “imperialist” propaganda?)
3.Can the economic policies followed by China be reconciled with its professed political objectives? Will not the “Grow more rich” campaign currently going on in China at the same time lead also to increased impoverishment of the majority?
4.The Asian tigers”, obviously are a carnivorous lot. Whom are they preying upon?
5.Vietnam, North Korea, Cuba..... where are they heading to ? What sort of a miracle are they expecting?
6.Is it that the “non capitalist path” or accelerated path” a total Utopia?” Is it that every country has to go through “full fledged capitalism”? Is that too possible?
7.“While in Rome do as Romans do” – an old proverb. The new one is TINA – there is no alternative”. Has one to accept this?
1,为什么世界上有所记录的社会主义工人阶级都失败了?(这些伪造的记录中包括中国,古巴,越南及朝鲜等等)。这一现象的产生有何共同原因,它们之间有何共同特征?
2,为什么工人阶级领导的国家(以及他们领导的政党变得越来越少,或是内部腐败加重?(又或是说这只是“帝国主义国家”的一面之词?)
3,中国秉持的经济政策会与其宣称的政治目标相一致吗?中国当下进行的“富民”运动得同时会不会导致广大贫困的增加?
4,“亚洲虎”很明显为食肉性的,他们正在搜寻猎物吗?
5,越南,朝鲜,古巴……他们未来发展方向如何?他们所期待的又是怎样的奇迹?
6,“非资本主义道路”或“加快道路”都只是纯粹的乌托邦吗?每个国家都必须经历“成熟资本主义”吗?这可能吗?
7,古语道,“入乡随俗”。而新的版本是TINA,也即毫无选择。这一点必须接受吗?
8.Does the “Base-superstructure” theory need refinement? Why was not the question of nationalities never solved in USSR? Or Yogoslavia? Why does it continue to persist and grow?
9.Arte the proverbial “Four Contradictions” meaningful now? “Nationalism and Transnationalism”, “Sectarianism”, “Gender Differences”; “Bleaching of the blue Collar” – changes in class composition and class consciousness, nonrenewability of many resources; ecological disasters ...............how are we to handle all these problems together?
10.What do we in India have to learn from all this international experience? There have been, for long, talk about the revision of party programmes of the various communist parties in India. Are old formulations of the class character of state” still valid?
11.What are the classes existing today in India. Where do we put the “new class” of the “ruling class” the all evading bureaucracy? The multi-party linked underworld? Do you have anything to learn from Milovan Djilas and other dissident critics of former socialist states.
12.Science and Technology has transformed the production process in the 20th century.. Are traditional categories of “classes”, class consciousness and class organisations still valid in the 21st century” How do we situate the professionals. What are other major groups that have emerged”?
8,“经济基础决定上层建筑”理论是否需要重新定义?为什么苏联和南斯拉夫的民族问题一直未解决?为什么这些问题一直存在且持续增加?
9,众所周知的“四大矛盾”在如今看来还有意义吗?“民族主义与跨国主义”,“宗派主义”,“性别差异”,“蓝领阶层的地位下降”--阶级构成和阶级意识的改变,资源的有限性,生态灾难等等,我们又该如何共同解决这些问题?
10,印度应从这些国际经验中学习什么?长期以来,关于印度共产党党纲的修订,大家各执其词。国家阶级特性的旧机制仍然行之有效吗?
11,如今存在于印度的上层社会是什么。我们应该讲“统治阶级”中的“新阶级”置于何位?是人们一直回避的官僚主义?还是多党操控的黑社会?你从密洛凡·德热拉斯或者先前社会主义国家中不同政见的评论家中所获为何?
12,科学技术改变了20世纪的生产过程。传统的阶级,阶级意识和阶级构成仍适用于21世纪吗?我们应该怎样做的更专业?又有何其他团体将应运而生?
13.What sort of a revolution do we contemplate in India?Peoples Democratic? National Democratic? What do we man by them at National, State, and Village levels?
14.Are conspiratorial or general uprisings or routes to revolution open to us? If not, what?
15.The peoples planning experiment that is going on in Kerala – where does it stand in the revolutionary process? A distraction? A facilitator? A new path? Were the 73rd and the 74th constitutional amendments absolutely necessary to initiate such an experiment?
16.Is “decentralized democracy” antithetical to democratic centralism”. Is decentralized planning and power contrary to revolutionary requirements?
17.What was the real role of progressive parties in the literacy campaigns going on in the country?Or even in the people’s planning campaign going on in Kerala?
18.How do we understand the reluctance of progressive parties to be associated in any mobilisational work that is for development or civic action as opposed to those that are agitational in character.
13,我们在印度进行的是一场怎样的革命?人民民主还是国家民主还是社会主义?我们对于他们来讲在国家,州,村务委员会以及村 级角度意味着什么?
14,我们将面临的是阴谋,暴动或是改革带来的边际影响?如果都不是,那会是什么?
15,如今正在喀拉拉邦进行的人民规划实验在整个革命进程中立于何地?革命分支还是革命推动又或是一条新的道路?
16,分散式民主与民主集中制是对立的吗?分散的规划和权力有违革命要求吗?
17,美国扫盲运动进行时,进步党扮演着何种角色?喀拉拉邦人民规划运动进行时,其又扮演何种角色?
18,我们应如何联想到进步党是推动发展和公民行动的阻力而不是与之相称的鼓舞力量。
19.What do we have to learn from Gramsci? Is a movement for moral and intellectual reform ‘essential to fight hegemony as a strategy of class rule. How do we understand this in the Indian context? Also how do we understand the role of civil society. Does it have any contribution to make?
20.Can there be democracy without the citizens right to recall, right to know, right to exercise powers? An democracy b e successful in n illiterate (not only in letters but also in science, technology, ecology etc.) society.
21.Do we have anything to learn from Gandhijiji’s aphorism – expressed by a large number of saints reformers etc. earlier too -‘This world has enough to satisfy everybody’ needs, but not their greed’s.”
22.When Marx characterized communism “From each according to his ability and to each according to his needs” - didn’t he make a qualification of needs – real needs as different from pseudo needs created by capitalism.
23.What do we understand b y human progress? I it more and more of consumption? Is it more choices? What is it? How do we quantify progress?
19,我们应从葛兰西身上学习哪些呢?是作为对抗霸权的阶级统治战略必不可少的道德和智力改革吗?我们又应该在印度背景下对此作何理解呢?我们应如何理解公民社会呢?这有何贡献?
20,公民无罢免权,知情权,行使权的民主可以存在吗?一个成功的民主国家是社会中不存在文盲的(不仅在文字上也体现在科学,技术,生态学等)。
21,我们可以从甘地格言—-早前由大批圣徒改革者宣讲,学到什么?世界可以满足每个人的需求,却不为他们的贪婪买单。
22,马克思的共产主义“各尽所能,按需分配”—-他没有定义需求的资格,而是不同于资本主义创造的伪君子的需求的真正的需求。
23,我们应如何理解人类进步?是日益增长的消费需求还是有了更多的选择?究竟是什么?我们应怎样量化进步?
24.Can India progress along route of Asian Tigers? If not what is the Indian path? Agriculture, fisheries animal husbandry, industry, energy, housing, clothing, education, health et. Et. Can we counter TINA complex. Many tell “TIBA” – This is the best alternative’ – b y mere negations and allegory. Don’s we have to work out to the last nut and bolt another blue – print?
24,印度的进步可以延续亚洲四小虎的发展方式吗?如果不可以,那么印度的发展道路应该是什么?农业,渔业,畜牧业,工业,能源,住房,服装,教育,健康等等。我们可以违背TINA方式吗?很多人有谈到“TIBA”—-这是最好的选择—-不过,这仅仅是一个否定和一个预测。我们不应奋战到底吗?
SOME THOUGHTS(ON HICH YOU COULD REFLECT AN IF YOU FEEL, LIKE, SEND YOUR COMMENTS)
一些想法(在这可以表达您的感受,喜好,发表评论)
1.Is it possible (if not why?) and desirable to resolve all our border b problems – Pakistan , China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Sri Lanka... and do away with the problem of external defense? Make the entire area a visa free region. War is a horrorful activity; military is a continuous wastage of resources and a potential source of brutality.
2.If India has to initiate such a grand ideal it has to become internally strong – both morally and economically. One of the elements of moral strength is total internal federalism – political and economical. A total states reorganization and revision in constitution is required.
1,解决我们与巴基斯坦,中国,尼泊尔,孟加拉国,缅甸,斯里兰卡等国的边界问题以及外部防范问题是有必要且合适的吗?(如果不是,为什么?)使整个地域成为免签证地区。战争是一种可怕的行为,军事也是一种持续的资源浪费也是残暴的潜在来源。
2,如果印度想要设立这样一个伟大的理想,她无论在道德上还是经济上都必须要做到内部强大。道德力量强大的一个表现就是内部政治和经济的完全联邦主义。国家宪法的改编和修正也是十分必要的。
3.Some of the key elements of the new constitution should be: Reorganisation of states b based on : i. Culture in its widest sense, ecology in its widest sense. ii. Inversion of power pyramid: citizen and gram sabha to be sovereign – power devolved from bottom upward. iii. Right to information (extreme transparency of state at all levels), right to work, earn a decent livelihood and enjoy it; right to rest, recreation and health services – all these are to be constitutionally enforceable fundamental rights. Right to education also becomes a fundamental duty.
4.Economy to be restructured in such a way that local bodies are more powerful than state or centre. The role of people’s representatives to be totally changed. They are not sent as fighters but as administrators, which may involve fighting of a different kind.
5.Income differentials to be willfully brought down, partly to fight consumerist culture, partly to enforce justice.
6.The entire macro economic system to be restructured The absolute wastage and criminality of stock exchange to be done away with. There is nothing more absurd than a stock exchange.
3,新宪法的一些关键要素包括:宪法改编应基于以下原则:(1)文化是广义的文化,生态是广义的生态。 (2)权力金字塔的倒置:公 民是至高无上的—权利由下而上。 (3)信息权(尤其是国家各级信息的透明度),工作权,获得体面的工作并享受其中,休息,娱乐以及服务的权利--所有的这些权力均应是宪法实施的基本权力。教育权也成为了一项基本义务。
4,经济以这样一种方式进行调整,也即地方机关要比州政府机关或中央机关更有权力。人民代表的作用已完全改变。他们的角色不在是战士而是将作为管理者参与不同的决策。
5,收入不均衡会有所方式解决,一方面抗击消费主义文化,另一方面执行正义决策。
6,整个宏观经济体系都有所调整。绝对浪费和证券交易所的犯罪行为被取缔。没有什么比证券交易所更荒谬了。
7.Humans, materials, machine s an information form the basis of any production. Money, shares, bills, capital market etc. etc. are only artifacts to facilitate the evening out unevenness in natural resource distributions, e use distribution and time of use. Unfortunately instead of evening out it has lead to further skewing further unevenness.
8.Capital requirements in lakhs, corers, hundreds of crores, can be met through a well orchestrated system of saving groups, Grameen Banks, district and state cooperative banks. Banks are not there to ply “poker”.
9.It is time to break away from the fetters of classical theories! The concept of classes and class relations valid yesterday are not valid today, valid “there” are not valid “here”. We should know our soil and our seeds. Rains or lack of rain may be global meteorological phenomenon. But just like in agriculture, in economies too we can provide for them.
10.India is a large market. We can produce ALL THE BEST things in the world – for ALL our people. Still we cannot have either arithmetically or exponentially expanding production an ininitum.
11.Very large scale organized production where INFORMATION AND MACHINES control men and Markets will necessarily create classes – even under centralized planning socialism – new class. They are inherently violent an hostile to the majority, to the poorer. Ganhiji I correct still.
7,人类,材料,机械是任何产品生成的基础。金钱,股份,票据,资金市场等只是促进自然资源均衡分配的比例尺。不行的是,这不仅没有使其正常化,反而加剧了动荡。
8,卢比的资金需求可以通过精心设计的存储组得以实现,乡村银行,地区和国家合作银行。银行的运营不能同打扑克相提并论。
9,是时候摆脱古典理论的束缚了!阶级理念和阶级关系适用于先前却不适用于今日,适用于这里,却不适用于这里。我们应该了解我们的土壤和种子。旱涝是全球的气象现象。就像农业一样,我们同样在经济上为他们供给。
10,印度是一个大市场。我们可以为世界上所有人生产世界上最好的产品。但是我们仍不能按照算术方式或指数方式扩大生产。
11,大规模的组织生产即信息和机器为主导市场就会创造阶级—即使是集中规划的社会主义也会产生新阶级。他们内在存在暴力倾向,对大多数充满敌意。
12.You can take a horse to the water but you cannot make it drink. You can manufacture any fancy thing but people can decide not to buy them. Non-cooperation is till, a poweul weapon.
13.Wisdom cannot prevail without needs having satisfied – but wisdom is live knowledge, active philosophy which helps one to distinguish between needs and greeds.
14.Anything that EVERYBOY CANNOT have, comes theoretically under the category of greed.
15.Let us study and understand the presently satisfied needs of Indian people. (Currently let us assume that pagers, cellular telephones and imported cars are needs of a section of he people.).
-What are the goods and services available and enjoyed by every person – 100% - young and old, poor and rich, man and woman, country dweller and city dweller – literally everybody. -What are the goods and services available only to less than 90% of the population, less than 70% population etc. -Make a rigorous study.
16.Can we list out all the goods and services which are currently not available an will not be available in any near future to more than 50% of the population.
17.Can we and shouldn’t we have an economic policy which is geared to ensure the satisfaction of needs and suppression of greeds defined in the above manner or some other way.
12,强扭的瓜不甜。你可以生产任何花俏的物品,但是购买产品的决定权却掌握在人们手上。不合作仍是一把利剑。
13,需求未满足前智慧不可能永存,但是智慧是活的知识需求,是积极的人生观,可以帮助人们区分需求和贪婪。
14,任何每个人都不能拥有的理论上都是贪婪的范畴。
15,让我们研究了解一下印度人民目前的需求。(现在让我们假设只有部分人需要呼叫机,移动电话,和进口汽车)
-什么样的物品和服务是所有人,年轻人或老人,贫困或富有,男人或女人,农村居民或城市居民需求并可享受的。 -什么样的物品和服务是90%人口需要的,少于70%等等。 -做一个严谨的研究
16,我们是否可以列出所有现在不需要而且近期有超过一般人口不需要的物品或服务。
17,我们是否可以建立一项经济政策使其可以满足人们的需求同时也可以抑制贪婪。
18.There is a historical tendency of globalization through revolution in technology especially transportation of information and material goods. In a way the whole world is becoming a literal village. How can this be reconciled with a highly decentralize economy. A model for a single world order, world government of UN which is not a superpower because of military strength, but is he sum - total of informed consensus of thousands and thousands of local economics, middle level economics and semi macro economics.
19.States cannot wither away – never. They are to be reconstituted – into a well harmonized natural orchestra – but again without the director. This is a major contradiction, individual and collective – but human race evolved and prospered only because it could consciously understand this contradiction and act on it. In future also it has to do the same.
18,技术改革尤其是信息和材料运输中存在一个全球化历史趋势。一方面,世界正成 为一个字面意义上的小村庄。在高度分散的经济面前,又将如何实现呢?一个简单世界秩序模型:联合国世界政府由于其军事力量不是一个超级大国,但是他却取得了成千上万地方经济,中层经济以及半宏观经济的一致认可。
19,国家永远不可能消亡。他们会重建为一个十分和谐的自然乐团,但是仍然没有指挥。这是主要矛盾--分离还是合作。但是人类之所以进化并且得以繁荣正是因为我们可以清醒的认识到这一矛盾并化解矛盾。未来也会如此。
-20.06.1997-
Last modified 3yr ago