人们的科学运动和科学教育

PEOPLE'S SCIENCE MOVEMENT AND SCIENCE EDUCATION

人们的科学运动和科学教育

作者:M.P. PARAMESWARAN 翻译:诸众之貌团队
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The generic name “People’s Science Movement” or PSM came into existence only in 1978 at a convention of “like-minded” groups in Trivandrum. The ‘likeness’ of mind consisted of the beliefs:
•that science, or knowledge in general is useful and necessary for the progress of human kind; •that tomorrow can be better than today, with poverty and disease afflicting billions eradicated with the use of science and technology;ii) •that science and technology – knowledge - should be, and can be, converted into a weapon in the hands of the poor billions in their fight against poverty and impoverishment; •that today the rich, the custodians of knowledge, are using it for oppression and destruction; this has to be opposed; and •that education of the young and old alike is necessary for the realisation of the above objectives.
The most active component of the PSM at that time was the KSSP. Over these years, people’s science movements have sprouted and grown in almost all the states in India, mainly through the process of public education, especially literacy.
1978年,一群志趣相投的人在特里凡得琅(Trivandrum印度南部港市)开会讨论,会议提及了通用名“人们科学运动(PSM)”一词,该词由此诞生。与会者就以下几点达成一致:
• 在人们发展进程中,科学和知识有益且必要。 • 明天比今天更美好。科技可以赶走困扰亿万人口的贫困和疾病。 • 科技和知识应该也能够转化为扶贫之武器,助力亿万人口脱贫。 • 今日,富人以及知识分子正使用知识作为用于压迫和剥削的工具。穷人和非知识分子应奋起反抗。 • 为实现科学发展,人类进步,少年乃至老者都需备好知识这把必要武器。
当时PSM中最主要的构成部分为KSSP。数年来,科学运动蜂拥而起,在印度各邦、直辖区迅速发展壮大,其主要发展途径为开展公众教育,特别是识字教育。
For the past three decades, PSMs, including groups like Kishore Bharathi and Ekalavya, have been involved in the formal education of children, especially science education. The general philosophy guiding them was the understanding: •that education should not only enrich the knowledge content (cognitive aspects) but also should affect the attitude of children towards nature and society (affective domain); •that cognitive enrichment is not possible without improving psycho-motor skills (learning by doing – both by hand and head); •that together, these make a unity of the head, heart and hand; •that in real-life situations, we do not find chemistry or physics, history or politics, biology or sociology; that the compartmentalisation process must be reversed leading to integration; •that the true principle of teaching is that nothing can be ‘taught’, that creation of a multitude of learning opportunities for the child to learn is the best teaching; •and finally, that education should be an agent for change and not for maintaining the status quo, i.e., resisting change.
过去30年里,各个PSM机构,包括Kishore Bharathi以及Ekalavya等组织都投身于常规儿童教育,特别是科学教育。这些机构组织的指导方针如下:
•教育不仅要丰富知识内容(认知层面),还要影响儿童对自然和社会的态度(情感领域); •丰富认知的前提是提高心理运动技能(手脑并用,在实践中学习); •学习要用心,用脑,用手; •在现实生活中我们不去区分化学和物理,历史和政治,生物和社会学。这些学科有相异之处但都相通。 •教学的真谛在于无为而 “治”,最佳教学方式就是为孩子创造多重学习机会。 •最后一点,教育应使人稳步前行,而非“原地踏步”。
Scores and even hundreds of local groups have been experimenting with education. Ekalavya in Madhya Pradesh and the KSSP in Kerala have, by far, the longest experience. But the experiences of the Diganthar group in Rajasthan and the Horsborough group in Andhra Pradesh, the contributions of individuals like Aravind Gupta, the experiments of the Tamilnadu Science forum and finally the experience of the Jeevanshala movement leading to the dream of Gyan Vidyalaya – all have added together to form the PSM view of education.
Here I will deal with a few experiments conducted by the KSSP during the past two decades, in some detail. It was these experiments that led to the massive school education reforms sweeping Kerala for the past four years.
数以百计的地区组织已展开教育实验。印度中央邦的Ekalavya以及喀拉拉邦的KSSP已展开迄今为止最大的教育实验。但拉贾斯坦邦的 Diganthar组织、安得拉邦的Horsborough组织、和泰米尔纳依邦科学论坛的教育实验,Aravind Gupta等人所做的个人贡献,以及助力实现Gyan Vidyalaya之梦的Jeevanshala运动等都对PSM的教育观产生了影响。 在此我会论述下过去二十年由KSSP所开展的一些实验细节。正是这些实验使得过去四年大众校园教育在喀拉拉邦流行。
BALOTSAV OR CHILDREN’S SCIENCE FESTIVAL
BALOTASV(儿童们的节日,为期三天)或“儿童科学节”
This was one of the first serious attempts to develop a pedagogy of interactive learning. The learning opportunity is conceived in the form of a set of so- called “comers” (because they are not large halls) where there will be one or two facilitators and materials for interactive learning. There were physic comers, electronics corners, chemistry corners, maths corners, origamy corners, puppet-making corners, puppet theatre, song and music corners, story-telling corners, live sky watching by the night, nature expeditions during day time, etc.. The whole experiment was designed in the form of a five-day camp. Half of the participating children were guests of the other half, local hosts. Their parents became local parents for the guest children. Often consciously, castes and religions were mixed – Muslim child in a Hindu home and vice versa, Dalits in Brahmin house and vice versa; children from affluent families hosted by children from poor families. Each corner provided an interaction time of about 1 to 11⁄2hours and a broad curriculum was set for this. Both cognitive and psychomotor aspects were addressed in these corners. The guest host arrangement is particularly designed to impact on the affective domain. The number of children in a festival varied from about 50 (panchayat to panchayat) to 300 (inter-district) and even one thousand (national).The pilot State festival was organised in 1984 and a full-fledged State festival with more than 300 children in 1986. Since then, hundreds of festivals have been organised in Kerala and many more in other states.
这是首批开发交互式教学法的尝试之一。学习机会主要提供给一群“未来之星”。此次教学实验中,他们所使用的并非备有交互式学习教学工具和辅导材料的巨大教学楼。参加实验的未来之星包括物理未来之星、电子未来之星、化学未来之星、数学未来之星、折纸工艺未来之星、木偶制作未来之星、木偶剧院木偶操控未来之星、音乐未来之星、说书未来之星。参与者晚上可观看夜空,白天可森林探险。整个教学实验的过程就是让儿童们体验“五日扎营”。一半参与儿童是另一半参与儿童的客人(另一半儿童变身为地区主人)。另一半儿童的父母也变身前一半儿童的地区主人。社会等级和宗教信仰在此彼此自然融合 --穆斯林儿童在印度教儿童家里,印度教儿童在穆斯林儿童家里。达力特人在婆罗门家庭,婆罗门人在达力特家庭。来自富裕家庭的儿童得到贫困家庭儿童的款待。实验中每位未来之星有1到1.5小时时间用于交流,此外实验为每位未来之星设立了广泛课程。这一客主安排主要用以影响儿童们的情感世界。参加活动的儿童数量从50(五人长老会之间)到300(各区之间)甚至100(全国范围)变化不等。 该国家节日于1984 年开始举行,到1986 年此节日趋于完备,有超过300的儿童参加。 自此,数百个节日在喀拉拉邦得以举行,此外还有很多其他节日在其他邦或中央区举行。
SASTRA SAHAWAS OR LIVING WITH SCIENCE
SASTRA SAHAWAS 或与科学共生
This was an experiment in pedagogy to impart “joy of learning” to children and “pleasure of teaching” to the teachers. It was also an experiment in developing a methodology for integrated science teaching. In this experiment, children went to the school in order to find out maths, physics and chemistry in nature: there, they were given glimpses of prehistory and the origins of sciences, like dynamics in hunting, botany in fruit gathering, properties of matter in tool making, astronomy in the diurnal rhythm and the repetition of the cycle of seasons, etc..
The children were made to do three major experiments. They were to make a number of smokeless chulhas and calculate their relative efficiencies through water boiling tests and finally they do full-fledged cooking experiments by cooking the necessary “balanced food” for the camp. The chulha was made a point of departure to interesting concepts like burning, components of smoke, imperfect burning, effect on health, chemical and physical changes, exothermic and endothermic reactions, rate of reaction, the principle of pressure cooker and insulated box, effect of heat on solids, liquids and gases, the functioning of a chimney, heat conduction, convection and radiation, advantages of improved burning and efficiency, scarcity of firewood, the economy and ecology of firewood,various sources of energy, etc.. The water boiling test was used to acquaint the children with the idea of a scientific experiment - how to design and conduct it, how to observe, how to measure, how to make inferences and how to grasp the sources of errors. The cooking experiment was a point of departure for biology: balanced food, human body, its different parts, sources of all food, photosynthesis, efforts to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus leading to frontiers in molecular biology. The idea was to convince the teacher that there could be any number of points of departure and he/she could teach all the curriculum in life-related and inter-related ways, without the conventional compartmentalisation into physics, chemistry biology, etc.. In a later experiment, seeds were made the point of departure and in yet another one, it was the wheel.
该教育学实验旨在向孩子们传达“学习之乐”,向教师传达 “教学之欢”。该实验也旨在为综合科学教学提供方法指导。在此实验中,儿童们前往学校的目的在于发现数学,物理,以及化学的本质:在此课程中,他们可以看到史前社会,探索着科学起源。他们能够看到打猎中的动态学,水果采摘中的植物学,工具制造中的物体属性,以及昼夜交替和四季更换中的天文学。儿童们主要参与了三个教学 实验。他们制造一系列无烟火炉,并通过烧水测试计算出燃烧效率,最终他们通过在露营中烹饪“平衡食品”,娴熟地完成了烹饪实验。无烟火炉引申出诸多有趣的概念,比如说燃烧、烟的成分、不完全燃烧、烟火对人体健康影响、化学变化、物理变化、放热反应、吸热反应、反应率、高压锅原理、隔热箱原理、热对固体,液体和气体的影响、烟囱功能、热传导、对流与辐射、充分燃烧的优点及燃烧效率、柴火短缺、柴火经济学和生态学、多种类能源资源,等等。烧水测试可使得儿童们了解到科学实验之思路--如何设计,如何实施,如何观察,如何测量,如何推断,如何把握错误源。开展烹饪实验的出发点在于了解生物学概念,比如食物平衡,人体,人体不同部位,食物源,光合作用,光合作用增强措施,甚至分子生物学等。实验思路使得教师们相信烹饪实验具有诸多出发点,教师可以从多角度讲解,而不必将讲解点拘泥于传统物理学,化学和生物学上。在之后的实验中,种子成为了研究的出发点,在 另一个实验中,车轮成为了研究的出发点。
We have made a new type of chulha. It is different from the conventional ones.It has got a chimney for smoke to escape.The vessel sits tight on the stove.In the fire-box, there is a grating for the ash to fall down. Why do we provide all these? For better burning.How does burning become better? There is better flow of air.How is air flow better? And for what?What is burning? It is combining with oxygen.What are the products? CO2 and water vapour.Only these two? Nothing else?If there is not enough oxygen, there will be carbon monoxide and even carbon particles.Carbon monoxide is harmful to health. If inhaled continuously, it will cause anaemia and even death.If there is enough air, combustion will be complete. There will be no black soot or carbon monoxide. Burning of firewood gives out heat. Heat is one form of energy. Light, electricity, etc., are other forms of energy. Burning is a process of combination of two elements – carbon and oxygen.This is not a process like mixing of sand and salt. Sand and salt can be easily separated (salt pans). What we get is a mixture.When carbon and oxygen combine CO2 is generated. This is a totally new substance. It cannot be split up easily into carbon and oxygen. Carbon dioxide is a compound -physical and chemical changes – combination and decomposition.Some chemical changes give out energy. They are called exo-energic reactions. For certain other reactions, energy is to be given. They are called endo-energic reactions.Within our body, many chemical reactions are taking place. Energy required for them are obtained from the food we take.Those who are engaged in heavy manual work require more food - in a day, about 3000-3500 kilo calories. Others require on an average 2400-2800 kilo calories of energy a day.A central theme of the entire course is that of connectedness and that science is everywhere.
我们已制作了一个新型火炉,该火炉与传统火炉大有区别。新型火炉有了烟囱,供放烟使用。炊具可以紧放于火炉上。在火炉底部有烟灰弹起的劈啪声。 如何让燃烧效果更佳?创造更好的空气流。如何让空气流变得更佳?为什么要让它更佳?什么是燃烧?可燃物与氧气相结合。燃烧产物是什么?二氧化碳和水蒸气燃烧产物仅有以上两者么?没有其他的了么?若氧气不足,一氧化碳,甚至碳颗粒就会就会出现。但一氧化碳对健康有害。人类若长期吸入一氧化碳,将会患贫血症甚至死亡。若空气充足,燃烧就会充分,黑烟和一氧化碳皆不会出现。柴火燃烧会放出热量,热,光,电皆为能量形式。燃烧就是两种元素也就是碳和氧结合的过程。这种结合不似沙和盐一般的混合。沙和盐可以轻而易举地分开。沙盐结合之后我们得到的是沙盐混合体。当碳氧结合,一种全新物质也就是二氧化碳便会产生。我们不能轻易将二氧化碳分为氧和碳。因为二氧化碳是一种化合物,它是物理变化燃烧和化学变化分解共同作用的产物。 一些化学变化会放出能量,我们将此称为放热反应。当然一些化学变化会吸收热量,我们称之为吸热反应。我们体内无时无刻不在发生化学变化。这些化学变化所需要的能量来自于我们所摄取的食物。那些干重活的体力劳动者需要吃更多食物,日均需补充3000到3500卡路里的热量。普通人日均需补充2400-2800卡路里的能量。该课程的中心思想就是告诉我事物之间具有联系,此外还告诉我们科学无处不在。
CHILD-CENTRED, ACTIVITY-BASED LIFE-RELATED ANDENVIRONMENT- ORIENTED TEACHING
以儿童为中心,以活动为基础,以生活为原型,恪守环保思想
This was one of the very first consciously designed experiments to develop a new pedagogy for converting mere information to knowledge and ability to apply knowledge. It was a 10-day experiment involving children who had just finished class VI – one full division – of the Vellanad Upper Primary School. Three teachers from the same school functioned as resource persons and 20 other teachers participated in the experiment. All the above-mentioned four elements of pedagogy were incorporated into the experiment. The prescribed general science textbook for class VII was taken as the starting point. The proposition was to transact the portion designated for the first term of about 55 hours within 20 hours in 10 days, test the students using the actual question paper administered for the first term examination in the previous year and compare the mark profiles of these students with that of their class VI examination on the one hand and to that of the last years class VII students.
这是首批设计实验之一,用以开发出一种可以将少量信息转化为知识和知识应用能力的教学方法。实验开展了10日,参与者有在Vellanad高段小学念书且完成VI年级学习的学生儿童。三名来自该小学的老师担任该实验的指导专家,此外有20名老师也参与了此次实验。实验融入了上述四点教学思想。此次实验的首要任务就是讲解用于VII年级的法定科学概论课本。根据实验要求,教师需在10日内用20个小时讲完原本需要在一学期内55个小时讲完的课程,并用去年VII年级第一学期的期末试卷来测试学生。然后将学生所得分数与他们在VI 年级时所得到的分数相对比,并与已完成 VII 年级学生的之 前第一学期的期末成绩相对比。
The textbook contained portions in botany, zoology, physics, chemistry and physiology. These subjects were ‘integrated’ in the textbook; but it was mere ‘stapler integration..’ The first step was to de-staple them and arrange them in a life-related manner and to device activities through which the children could learn the facts and apply them.
此课本涉及了植物学,动物学,物理学,生理学。虽然在这些主题课本都有涉及,但是课本将各主题“订”在了一 起。第一步要将它们解“订”,然后以生活为模型对各个主题分门别类,分别详细解释,并举办相关活动,通过活动儿童们可迅速掌握知识并应用知识。
Starting from a discussion on the food eaten by the children the previous day, leading to the variety in form and content of food materials and arriving at the point that cereals formed the most important category of food, the children were given an activity to collect as many variety of seeds as possible. The child collecting maximum variety of seeds was given a prize. The seeds were classified into different types, and a number of activities were devised to make children imbibe the concept of ‘sets’, ‘groups’, ‘intersection’, etc.. From the seeds, one could branch off to cultivation, to germination, to leaves and photosynthesis, to irrigation, pumps and hydrostatics, to fertilisers, chemistry and manufacture of NH3, HCl, H2SO4, etc., to flowers of plants, to perfume industry, to medicinal uses, to cooking, to heat transfer, conduction, convection and radiation, to digestive systems, to human physiology...the entire 20-hour curriculum was an uninterrupted, smoothly flowing narrative related to life in the context of environment, transacted by each child through a number of activities. They were later subjected to a conventional examination.
孩子们需要玩一个游戏,游戏之前老师先安排孩子们讨论前一天他们吃了什么食物,由此涉及到各种食物和食材,然后教师提及谷类食品,并告知同学们谷类食物是在所有食物中最为重要,之后引入游戏。根据游戏规则,孩子们需要收集尽可能多种类的种子,谁收集的种类最多,谁就能获奖。很多游戏的设计的初衷为让孩子理解“团体”、“组织”“交流”等概念。孩子还可以从种子延伸到其他很多东西:耕作,发芽,树叶,光合作用,灌溉,水磊,流体静力学,肥料,化学,NH3、HCl、H2SO4等的制造,植物花卉,香水产业,药用价值,烹饪,热传导,对流,辐射,消化系统,人类生理学等等。在20个小时的课程中,教师不间断地向同学讲授知识要点,并根据学生上课进展,以生活为原型为学生延伸知识。此外教师还通过一系列活动循循善诱。但最终学生还得接受传统考试。
•It was found that mark profile of the entire class had gone up, the number of children who failed had come down. •The answers given by students to the same question differed widely, but all were correct - each had his/her way of expression.
The experiment was extended to 20 schools and for one year, involving about 1,400 children. In each school, one division followed the old pedagogy (control) and another division, the new pedagogy. Terminal and annual evaluations showed marked difference between the experimental group and the control group, based on the same examination paper. The number of failures came down, the average level went up, children became more inquisitive, started asking more questions, were not afraid, were capable of applying knowledge in previously unfamiliar situations. On the whole, the results were highly positive and encouraging.
• 结果发现整个班级的分数上升了,没通过考试的学生少了。 • 虽然各个学生给出的答案各式各样,但是所有学生给出的答案都没有错--因为每个人都有自己的表达方式。
该实验一年之内在20所学校展开,学生参与量为1400。在每个学校,一组学生采用旧的教学模式(实验对照组),另一组则采用新的教学方法。年度评估显示对于同一份考题实验组学生和对照组学生答题存在显著不同。相比对照组学生,实验组学生没通过考试的人数少了,平均分数高了,他们变得更加善于问问题,毫无畏惧问更多问题,并能够将知识应用到之前并不熟悉的情形里。整体来看,实验效果非常积极,非常振奋人心。
OPERATION CLASS ROOM
“课堂运作空间”
One of the elements of the above project was the preparation of a number of teaching modules indicating
•objectives; •prerequisites; •thrust areas; •duration; •list of activities including optional activities; •detailed description of activities; •possible variations and extension and •list of materials.
In 1992, KSSP decided to prepare detailed teaching modules for teachers for Malayalam, mathematics, environmental sciences and social studies for classes I toVII. This was a grand project to be executed as an activity of the Kerala contingent of the Bharat Gyan Vigyan Samithi and the KSSP. About 150 teachers were drafted for this. But only about 50 became active. Literally hundreds of modules were prepared, for different classes and subjects, just for classes one to four. Each subject was divided into a number of units and each unit into a number of periods. For example, unit 3 of third standard social studies had 16 periods and is about Keralam, our State. Each period had its specific content and activities. In 1993, KSSP conceived a much more ambitious project to involve 20,000 teachers from 2000 schools. The project was titled Adhyapanam Athi Madhuram and was intended • to extend the Integrated Science Teaching experiments of KSSP to about 2,000 schools and to evolve a methodology for transformation of the teaching and learning process into something enjoyable for both teacher and students; • to train around 20,000 teachers to make use of the prevailing text books in a child-centred, activity- based, life-related and environment-oriented pedagogic practices and to prepare a set of handbooks of modules for teacher re-orientation and training, using improved pedagogic methods to teach all the projects, namely Malayalam, Hindi, English, mathematics, general science and social science for classes I to VII; • to try out these modules in actual class rooms in a number of schools during 1994-95 to begin with; • to select appropriate control groups and compare integrated science teaching methods with the conventional teaching methods using traditional examinations; • to formulate an improved examination technique to test actual comprehension and to make an evaluation of the two teaching methods based on the improved evaluation system and to explore the possibilities of effective involvement of the community in the academic and various other auxiliary activities in the schools and to create a model or societal involvement in formal schooling, thereby rendering the system more transparent and accountable to the society.
上述项目的元素之一在于一系列教学板块的准备,教学板块阐释了: •实验目标 •实验前提 •实验冲突点 •实验时长 •列出一系列活动,从中选择实验活动 •活动的详述 •列出可能的变量与知识延伸 •列出所需材料
1992年,KSSP决定为1年级到7年级学生的马拉雅拉姆语,数学,环境科学等课程布置详细的教学板块。这是BGVS(印度学习与科学组织)和KSSP在喀拉拉邦安排的一个重大项目。该项目选出150名教师,但只有50名富有成效。可以说,针对不同班级和不同课题的数百个教学板块都得以准备(1年级到4年级)。每个课题都有若干单元,每个单元都要在若干时间段讲完。比如说,第三标准社会研究的单元3需要在16个时间段讲完(单元3讲的是喀拉拉邦,也就是我们的邦)。每个时间段都会安排特定的讲解内容和学习活动。
1993年,KSSP推出一项更加雄心勃勃的项目,参与该项目的有来自2000所学 校的2万名教师。项目名称为Adhyapanam Athi Madhuram,项目旨在:
•延伸KSSP的综合科学教学实验至2000所学校,升级以往的教学模式,将教学与学的过程转化为老师和学生认为有趣的事情。 •培训20000名教师,使用常规教科书,遵循“以儿童为中心,以活动为基础,以生活为原型,恪守环保思想”的教学理念。 •为教师重新定位与培训准备一些列指导手册,确保所有项目使用优化之后的教学方式,向1到7年级的学生全面教授马拉雅拉姆语,印度语,英语,数学,科学概论,以及社会科学。 •于1994至1995年间,在诸多学校的实体教室的课堂上试用这些教学板块。 •选择适当的实验控制组,以传统考试的形式比较综合科学教学法与传统教学法的教学效果。 •新增考试模式,测试学生实际对知识的理解,并在优化评估体系的基础上对两种教学模式予以评估。 •探索让学生有效融入学习的方式在学校展开学术活动,和其他附属活动;为学校教育创造社会评价机制,以保证教学体制更加透明,更加富有社会责任感。
This was to be submitted to the MHRD, Government of India through the State Government. The then Secretary of Education did not forward the proposal. The KSSP continued, in a more limited mode, production of additional modules. However, large- scale testing could not be conducted because of lack of cooperation from the education department. The opportunity came again in 1996 when the new government took a decision for a thorough overhaul of the curriculum and the Director of the District Primary Education Programme was entrusted with the task. The new curriculum, including pedagogy and evaluation, was introduced in 1997. Though later it evoked widely orchestrated and malicious criticism, it was the best curriculum ever made in Kerala. The experience of the last four years throughout Kerala shows an all-round improvement in the achievements of the students.
该项目已由政府提交至印度人力资源发展部。然而教育部对此项目并不看好。KSSP依旧坚持。但是,KSSP并未展开大规模测试,因其缺乏教育部门的配合。1996年,印度新政府决定彻底检修教育课程,当时DPEP(印度旨在振兴小学教育的机构)的主任被委以重任,KSSP项目发展指日可待。包括教学方法和评估机制在内的新的课程机制于1997年得以推出。后来该规划得到广泛吹捧,也遭到恶意批判。不管怎样,事实证明,它是喀拉拉邦的最佳教学机制。喀拉拉邦过去四年对该机制的推行见证了学生们学术成就的提高。
The teachers associated with ‘Operation Class Room Modules” had played a leading role in the preparation of the new curriculum, text books, pedagogy and teachers’ hand books. Intolerant enemies of the new curriculum, argued that child-centred and activity-based pedagogy was a malicious design of the World Bank to non- formalise and degrade formal education to ordinary citizens, that the educational theories of Paulo Friere, Noam Chomsky, etc., were absurd, that they were in effect agents of the World Bank and imperialism, that “learning by rot” and use of cane had ‘positive’ learning implications, that the new curriculum was introduced at the instance of the World bank which funded the DPEP and that KSSP, by its support and defence of the new curriculum, had objectively became the agents of the World Bank.
与“课堂运作空间板块”相关的老师在新课程,新教科书,新教学方法,以及教师手册的的筹备中发挥着领导作用。狭隘的反对者则认为“以孩子为中心,以活动为基础”的教学方法是世界银行恶意为之,以非常规的方式将正轨教育推向普通大 众;Paulo,Friere和Noam的教育理念荒诞不经;这些教育者们是世界银行和帝国主义的助纣为虐者;“腐败学习”以及手杖之使用具有“积极”的学习暗示;新 课程为应世界银行主张而推出(世界银行就是DPEP和KSSP的资助者),世界银行坚决支持和捍卫新课程,新课程也就成为了世界银行的代理人。
The KSSP, in reply, refused to pass on the credit of the new curriculum, whatever it might be to the World Bank; it was confident that the charge against it was patently untrue and pleaded ‘guilty’ of contributing to the development of the new curriculum.
对于反对之音,KSSP表示,不管新课程对世界银行有多重要,KSSP都不会大肆宣传新课程。反对者对新课程的指控显然都无据可循,且明显在责难新课程的发展和贡献。
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